Each new king had to subscribe to King Henry's Articles, which were the basis of Poland's political system and included near-unprecedented guarantees of religious tolerance. Typically a nobleman's landholding comprised a folwark, a large farm worked by serfs to produce surpluses for internal and external trade.
On the other hand, Russian "occupation of Lithuania not only did not hamper the spreading and growth of the influence of Polish culture in Lithuania, but indirectly even aided this process.
The Commonwealth imported spices, luxury goods, clothingfishbeer and industrial products like steel and tools.
Private armies: In time of peace usually small regiments few hundred men were paid for and equipped by magnates or cities.
While for the moment they reaped the benefits of their position and actions the King agreed not to resist the next Tatar slave-taking raids into Polandfor the Poles the Berestechko victory was by that time wasted.
It must be recalled that the possibility of a division of the republic had been present since the middle of the seventeenth century.
In the 18th century, the Czartoryskis and the Potockis established Commonwealth-wide magnate factions of great importance. Latifundia were present throughout the Polish—Lithuanian federationbut developed most extensively in the eastern reaches of the Crownhaving expanded in that direction before the Union of Lublin.
There were also a few other centers of peasant revolt, including one organized by Piotr Grzybowski in Greater Poland.
The same was true for most settlements in foreign and domestic affairs. These modest signs of industrial progress occurred within the Commonwealth with a nearly half-century delay not only in comparison to Poland's western and southern neighbors, but also with respect to Russia.
And it was too late not just because of foreign intervention, but, what was more important for the question being analyzed, because of historical opposition.
Why is it that in the same district one peasant has to work only two days for a good lord, while another six days for a wicked lord and in addition be beaten by him.